Saturday, 8 July 2017

Caravan Club, 1934

Pride weekend is an appropriate time for a visit to the Caravan Club. Open for just a few months in 1934, this lesbian and gay-friendly basement nightclub billed itself as 'London's Greatest Bohemian Rendezvous' with 'all night gaiety' and dancing.  


Its premature closure was the result of a police raid and court case. However, one fortunate side-effect of that is the survival in the National Archives of detailed records which allowed the club to be reconstructed earlier this year. For a month, the Caravan Club entertained guests in Endell Street again - although, under the more reputable auspices of the National Trust, no arrests followed. 


While the National Trust could announce the Caravan Club as an LGBTQ event, the original promoters had to be more circumspect. In a climate of social and legal hostility to same-sex relationships, such clubs relied upon code words such as 'Bohemian' and 'unconventional'. They attracted a substantial clientele: the tiny Caravan Club had over 2,000 visitors, 445 of them members. 


What did they get for their shilling-and-sixpence admission? The police reports and photographs give us some idea. Guests lounged on sofas; 'men were dancing with men and women were dancing with women'; some of the dancing was 'indecent' or 'very obscene'; there were men 'made up like women' and 'cuddling and embracing'. Draped fabrics and decorations gave the 'badly lighted' space a bohemian atmosphere at limited expense: prudent, since such clubs tended not to last long. 

Facsimile complaint letter

The Caravan Club was no exception: complaints from neighbours brought it to police attention. After observation by plainclothes officers (some posing as customers), it was raided and closed on 25 August 1934.  



According to the police, many of the women were of the 'prostitute class' and the men of the 'importuning type'. That was probably an exaggeration: the professions of those prosecuted following the police raid suggests a more varied clientele. They included artists, waiters, shop assistants and labourers. 


Those running the club were pretty colourful characters in their own right. Jack Neave was a former escapologist and strongman, known as 'Ironfoot Jack' because his right leg was shorter than his left and supported by a metal platform. Billy Reynolds was only 24 but had several previous convictions. They were prosecuted alongside their clients. 

103 people were arrested and brought before Bow Street Magistrates' Court. While no evidence was offered against 75 of them, the remainder returned for trial. Some were found not guilty; others received short sentences; but Neave and Reynolds were treated more harshly. Neave was sentenced to 20 months' hard labour and Reynolds to twelve months for keeping a disorderly house - 'a foul den of iniquity which was corrupting the youth of London', in the judge's words. 



Wednesday, 5 July 2017

Target: London


When V2 rockets were fired at London in the final years of the Second World War, the results were tragic. However, the capital was saved from a further destructive weapon, the V3. 

Replica V3 barrel

V stood for Vergeltungswaffe, or 'retribution weapon' rather than any particular type of missile (the V1 'doodlebugs' were flying bombs). V3s were cannon or superguns capable of firing from the Pas de Calais in Northern France to London. Multiple propellant charges along their barrels boosted the projectiles, each with an explosive charge of 55lb. 


Since the gun barrels would be over 400 feet long, fixed sites were needed with drifts to support each barrel. Near the V1 and V2 launch sites (including the Eperlecques Bunker), a new fortress was built underground at Mimoyecques. It was chosen for its proximity to London as well as being a safe distance from the coast, with its risks of naval and commando attacks. 


Construction began in 1943, with the work carried out by a mixture of German mineworkers and other labourers, many forced, including Russian prisoners of war and Polish deportees. 


A main central tunnel was reinforced with concrete and had a railway to carry equipment and supplies in and rubble out; the side tunnels and drifts were dug out of the chalk. 


The Allies became aware that there was a construction project. Their intelligence and aerial photos couldn't tell them exactly what the project was - they suspected another launch site for V2s - but it was enough for them to target the site. Aerial bombardments followed, and a raid by the RAF's 617 Squadron - of Dambusters fame - finally put the installation out of commission in July 1944. 


It used Tallboy bombs designed by Barnes Wallis, known as 'earthquake bombs'. These did not explode on impact like conventional bombs, but penetrated the ground at high speed before exploding, producing shockwaves which collapsed the tunnels. Each bomb weighed 12,000 lb and had to be dropped from specially-adapted Lancaster bomber planes.


It is not know how many people were killed underground by the bombing. A memorial inside the tunnels commemorates 'the thousands of victims of 18 nations of the 6 July 1944'; the museum guidebook suggests very low numbers. However, the V3 programme was stopped, and a few months later the Allied advance would see the Canadians take Mimoyecques without resistance: the many lives that could have been lost to its guns had been saved. 


When the true nature of Mimoyecques was established, Churchill said it 'might well have launched the most devastating attack of all on London.' If it had been completed and put into operation as originally planned, it would have been capable of firing 300 rounds per hour at London, targeted on Westminster and aimed at terrorising the population. In fact, there were significant technical problems with these weapons. Bombing and the Normandy landings curtailed the project before these could be overcome. 


After being used as a mushroom farm, the site was reopened as a museum in 1984: a place to remember those who died within its cold, damp tunnels; the airmen who died attacking it; and the terrible danger from which London was spared. 


More incongruously, it is also a nature reserve: home to a large bat colony including several rare species. For that reason, it is closed to visitors during the winter months. 


 



 





Saturday, 24 June 2017

Tulip Stairs


The first geometric, self-supporting spiral staircase in Britain is in the Queen's House, Greenwich. It is 'geometric' because each step supports the stair above: there is no central column. Andrea Palladio, father of the Palladian style of architecture, had described and praised such staircases, 'void in the middle'. 


Inigo Jones studied Palladio's work and followed his example in the Queen's House. Nicholas Stone, his mason, introduced a crucial innovation. Rather than relying only on the overlap between steps for support, he also introduced a rebate: a groove along the bottom of the riser, also known as an 'interlock'. 

Stamp Office staircase, Somerset House

The difference is neatly illustrated in the Stamp Office staircase at Somerset House. The lower level, with its short flights and narrow steps, did not need rebates: we can see that the steps simply rest on top of each other. The much fancier upper level, though, is rebated: you can see that each step is slotted into the one above, rather than simply sat on the one below. (As usual, you can click the picture to enlarge it.)


Stone's innovation allowed such staircases to be built more dramatically, yet remain structurally sound. Geometric staircases proliferated in the eighteenth century, falling out of fashion only with the Gothic revival in the nineteenth. 


 Why was Britain's original named the Tulip Stairs, though? It's apparently a reference to the stylised flowers in the balustrade - although these are thought to be fleurs-de-lys, not tulips at all. They were the family emblem of Queen Henrietta Marie, wife of Charles I, for whom the house was built. (In fact, when work began, it was for James I's wife Anne of Denmark - but she died during building; when work resumed, it was for Henrietta Marie.) 

After the Civil War, the Palace of Greenwich in front of the house was demolished, giving it a view across to the Thames. When a new Hospital for Seamen was established on the palace site, Queen Mary II famously insisted that the river view must remain. Thus Sir Christopher Wren designed two pairs of courts, creating the riverside vista we are now familiar with - and leaving the Queen's House view unimpaired. 

It is now part of the National Maritime Museum, housing its art collection. Visits are free, and worthwhile for the displays - but don't forget to look at (and climb) this fabulous staircase. 

St Paul's Cathedral: Geometric Staircase

London has another famous seventeenth-century example: the Geometric Staircase of St Paul's Cathedral. A three-hundred-year-old masterpiece, which has starred in Harry Potter, it can be seen on the cathedral's Triforium Tour



Wednesday, 7 June 2017

Whitgift Almshouses, Croydon


Incongruously ancient amidst the trams and chain stores, Whitgift Almshouses are an intriguing feature of central Croydon. The annual Heritage Festival offers a rare opportunity to walk through the gates and explore these historical buildings which are also very much a living community. 


John Whitgift, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was a major benefactor to Croydon, and his name can be found on all sorts of places. Some, like the shopping centre, were built long after his time.


However, he was very much involved in establishing the almshouses, and set admission criteria which still apply today: residents must be over 60, of modest circumstances, members of the Church of England, and come from the parishes of Lambeth or Croydon or the County of Kent. Those who meet the criteria and are admitted get one of fifteen flats in sheltered accommodation, as well as use of the chapel and garden. They also receive a weekly stipend: on Friday mornings, the senior resident rings the chapel bell and each resident is given 70p (65p for men). Once a quarter, the men receive a further stipend of £3 and the women £1. 


The foundation stone was laid on 22 March 1596, after Elizabeth I gave Whitgift permission to establish the Hospital of the Holy Trinity. He had his summer residence in Croydon, and sought to address its poverty and (through founding a school at the same time) promote education.



While the flats have been modernised, converted from thirty or so individual rooms, the historical fabric of the buildings has largely survived, especially externally. Whitgift was a regular visitor to his almshouses, and his rooms remain. Their features include a staircase with alcove for a guard (the Archbishop was not always popular, especially as he was highly intolerant of Puritanism). There is a story that one night, the servant on guard fell asleep: falling down the steep stairs, he broke his neck and died. 


It's worth risking your neck on the steps, as they lead to the Audience Chamber with its original oak panelling and fireplace.



Safely back on the ground floor, the residents' common room has stained glass from various periods, including one piece spelling out a financial contribution!




Visits end where they began, in the Quadrangle. Its inclusion in the Hospital design reflects Whitgift's Cambridge connections: he was Master of Trinity College. 


The clock, which has only one hand, is from 1608. It's a reminder of the centuries which have passed in this lovely, peaceful place.



If you'd like to visit the Almshouses, there are free guided tours on Saturday 24 June as part of the Croydon Heritage Festival - book here.



Sunday, 28 May 2017

Croydon Arts and Crafts



Tucked opposite the better-known Fairfield Halls is one of Croydon's most interesting buildings, the Adult School Hall. This functional, and rather lovely, piece of Arts and Craft architecture was built in 1908, attached to the Quaker meeting house. 


While the meeting house had to be replaced after a land mine destroyed it in 1940, the Hall survives as witness to an important piece of social history. It was created to accommodate local members of the Adult School Movement, who numbered almost a thousand in Croydon at the time. 


This movement had begun at the end of the eighteenth century, providing adult education for non-conformists whose religion emphasised direct access to the Bible - and thus the skills to read it. Quaker efforts in the mid-nineteenth century broadened the curriculum, increasing their appeal, and added activities such as book clubs and saving banks. Membership was at its peak when the Croydon hall was built; it would soon decline with the coming of the First World War. After the War, adult schools never really recovered as their emphasis on bible study lost its appeal and secular alternatives such as the Workers' Education Association developed. 


The architect, William Curtis Green, had built several power stations; future commissions would include the Wolseley showrooms in Piccadilly, the Dorchester Hotel in Park Lane and a number of banks. One of his final commissions was New Scotland Yard. He later served as president of the Architectural Association and vice-president of RIBA. The inclusion of the Adult School Hall in this varied portfolio was due to his wife, who was a member of the prominent Quaker family, the Crosfields, which paid for the building.  


Curtis Green's stated aim of using modern innovations while being rooted in tradition is combined with a Quaker emphasis upon simplicity and honesty. As a result, there is no elaborate decoration or fancy embellishment; but the effect is both characterful and impressive. The building surely deserves its Grade II listing. 


The loss of the meeting house in 1940 saw the adult school pressed into service to replace it until the new hall was completed in 1957. Since then, it has mainly been used for functions and events. 






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